Migrating from one SharePoint version to another can be harder then it seems at first glance. Thinking through your migration strategy and prerequisites is the first and foremost important step, but no migration is without issues, and no issue is without an error you nor Google has seen before.
In our case this issue happened when migrating from SharePoint 2010 to SharePoint 2013 and upgrading the User Profile Service Application. This caused the error:
GetSafeOrdinal: FATAL ERROR: Could not find column ‘LastModifiedTime’ in PartitionProperties. Please check if the Content and Federated Services farm are of compatible versions.
After rerouting our steps we found out that our customer had ordered and installed a SharePoint .iso in their native language and not in English, where the old SharePoint environment was in English but with a language pack installed in their native language. So where the environment seems Dutch on both versions when using Central Administration, basically these are actually two different languages. Migrating the UPS Sync database from one environment to another caused this error, but recreating the UPS Sync database (and keeping the migrated and upgraded UPS Social and UPS Profile databases) solved this error. All other databases could be migrated and upgraded but this particular one caused a little headache, but nothing is unsolvable – right? 🙂